Source: Sarena D. Seifer, Community Campus Partnerships for Health, updated January 2008 by NSLC.
The following list of books and peer-reviewed publications will provide direction and useful information for developing service-learning programs in nursing. The list is not intended to be exhaustive, but reflects a compilation of materials recommended by the Partners in Caring and Community Program, Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, and the National Service-Learning Clearinghouse.
Bibliography with Abstracts
American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Implementing community-based education in the undergraduate nursing curriculum, Washington D.C.: American Association of Colleges of Nursing and Helene Fuld Trust, 1999.
This publication provides the Proceedings of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and Helene Fuld Health Trust, HSBC Bank USA, Trustee 1999 Faculty-Development Workshops on Community-Based Education.
Arches, J., Powerful partnerships, Journal of Community Practice, 2001, 9(2), 15-30.
Using a multi-cultural, inter-generational partnership model, undergraduate students participated in a service-learning collaborative project with immigrant and refugee youths. Recognizing the multiple issues facing newcomers to this country, the collaborative attempted to teach community problem solving and cross cultural leadership skills while promoting civic participation. The youths from Cape Verdian, Haitian, and Somalian community agencies identified a problem area: the public education system, specifically, accessing services and knowing one's rights. Both groups of students worked as partners conducting needs assessments, researching information and creating a booklet for use by parents and students. In addition to meeting specifically identified needs, the project heightened ethnic pride and inter-generational understanding for all participants.
Bailey, P., Carpenter, D.R., Harrington, P., Eds., Integrating community service into nursing education: A guide to service-learning, New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, 1999.
Service-learning gives nurse educators a simple tool for linking classroom learning to the community. A growing movement among educators nationwide, it combines volunteer service with a structured learning experience which includes student preparation and reflection. This book is a guide to applying service-learning to the nursing curriculum, written by nurse educators who have created and implemented a successful program at the University of Scranton. It includes essays by community agency administrators who have participated in these programs, student feedback, and many case examples.
Bailey, PA, Carpenter, DR, & Harrington, P. Theoretical foundations of service-learning in nursing education, Journal of Nursing Education, Oct 2002, 41(10), 433-436.
Although somewhat new to nursing, service-learning has had a long history of development. To be successful, a service-learning program must have institutional support, interested faculty and motivated students, potential for strong community partnerships, and an ongoing orientation and development component. Reflection is an important link between the service students perform and the learning outcomes of that service.
Bartels, J. E., Education: Liberal learning in nursing education--connecting career service, Journal of Professional Nursing, 1998, 14(5), 264.
Baumberger-Henry, ML, Krouse, AM, Borucki, LC. Giving and receiving - A case study in service learning, Nurse Educator, 2006, 31(6), 249-252.
Service learning is becoming a requirement for many universities wanting to connect with the communities surrounding them while also instilling civic responsibility in their students. The process should benefit all involved. In the following case study, the authors describe their experience of initiating a service learning component in an introductory nursing course, from the design to the implementation of the project. Faculty concerns and student reactions are included.
Beauchesne, M.A., & Meservey, P.M., An interdisciplinary community-based
educational model, Journal of Professional Nursing, 1999, 15(1), 38-43.
The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative partnership among academia, community agencies, and service providers to better meet the health care needs of underserved populations. The Center for Community Health Education, Research, and Service--a coalition of Boston education institutions, health services providers, and community agencies--was formed with a grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. The initial goal was to establish academic community health centers comparable to the large teaching hospitals that combine service, education, and research as the corner-stone of their mission. With faculty based in the neighborhood health centers, students have learning opportunities to assess, plan care, and treat individuals and families using a community-based primary care model. The nature of the partnership, including the structure and process of implementation, is described. The developmental socialization of advanced practice nursing students in a community based-setting is discussed. Educational and service outcomes are identified.
Bellack, J., Education for the community, Journal of Nursing Education, 1996, 34(8), 342-3.
Bellack, J., Community-based nursing practice: Necessary but not sufficient, Journal of Nursing Education, 1998, 37(3), 99-100.
Bentley, R, & Ellison, KJ. Increasing cultural competence in nursing through international service-learning experiences, Nurse Educator, Sept/Oct 2007, 32(5), 207-211.
The authors share one school's experience with the development and implementation of a cross-cultural, international, service-learning experience. Discussion will include the development of an elective nursing course with cross-cultural content and the implementation of an international service-learning trip to Quito, Ecuador.
Berkowitz, B. Caring and community: Concepts and models for service-learning in nursing, Journal of Nursing Education, Oct 2002, 41(10), 462.
Bittle, M, Duggleby, W, & Ellison, P. Implementation of the essential elements of service learning in three nursing courses, Journal of Nursing Education, Mar 2002, 41(3), 129-132.
Brosnan, CA, Upchurch, SL, Meininger, JC, Hester, Johnson, G, & Eissa, MA. Student nurses participate in public health research and practice through a school-based screening program, Public Health Nursing, May/June 2005, 22(3), 260-266.
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions among children in minority populations, placing them at risk for diabetes and hypertension. The importance of educating a generation of nurses who have the knowledge, skills, and passion to address this public health need is crucial to the profession and to America's health. This article describes the use of a Community Partnership Model to frame baccalaureate nursing students' (B.S.N.) service learning within the context of a research study to screen middle- and high-school students for health risks. The missions of education, research, and practice are linked together in the model by three processes: evidence-based practice, service learning, and scholarly teaching. The aim of the project was early identification of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes and their predictors in a high-risk student population, between 12 and 19 years of age. Early evidence indicates that the model is feasible and effective for directing student learning and addressing public health problems in the community.
Callister, L. C., & Hobbins-Garbett, D., "Enter to learn, go forth to serve": Service-learning in nursing education, Journal of Professional Nursing, 2000, 16(3), 177-83.
The Pew Health Professions Commission (1998) has recommended community-based service-learning as an integral part of nursing education. Service-learning activities in a baccalaureate nursing program with an integrated curricular model are described with a women's health elective used as one example of the integration of service-learning with clinical experiences. Based on clinical journal entries, students identified benefits of service-learning including: (1) a sense of personal satisfaction, (2) professional growth, (3) a higher level of critical thinking skills, (4) preparation for nursing practice in a dynamic and diverse health care delivery system, and (5) an increased awareness of unmet needs in clients, families, communities, and populations. Students are truly engaged because they have the opportunity to apply theoretical concepts in giving service, creating a "capacity for connectedness," and learning social responsibility as professionals.
Childs, JC, Sepples, SB, & Moody, KA. Mentoring youth: A service-learning course within a college of nursing, Journal of Nursing Education, 2003, 42(4), 182-185.
Faculty at the University of Southern Maine College of Nursing and Health Care Professions developed a service-learning course that connected students and faculty with at-risk children in a local community. Nursing students, with faculty supervision and support, developed, implemented, and evaluated interventions to reduce risk factors and increase protective factors to build and strengthen the participants' resiliency. Students enrolled in the service-learning course worked in the community where they gained an understanding of what it was like for children and adolescents to live in an impoverished community setting with disorganized family units and weak community support. The students learned to collaborate with police, schools, public health nurses, and churches, as well as students in other major programs. The benefits of this course for students and the community were far reaching and even life changing.
Ciaccio, J., & Walker, G.C., Nursing and service-learning: The Kobyashi Maru, Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 1998, 19(4), 175-77.
Service-learning requires faculty and students to step away from habitual methods. It necessitates a culture change in organizations. Examples from nursing education illustrate how it can enrich teaching and learning.
Cohen S.S., & Milone-Nuzzo P., Advancing health policy in nursing education through service-learning, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 2001, 23(3), 28-40.
Knowledge of health policy is an increasingly important aspect of nursing practice and education, especially as nurses strive to improve the rapidly changing health care delivery system. At the same time, many educators, researchers, foundations, and government officials are touting the benefits of service-learning. In particular, service-learning offers ways to enhance partnerships between academia and community agencies and to extend learning beyond the traditional classroom. We present a model for educating nurses as advanced practice nurses in health policy that links service-learning with a framework for the political development of nurses. Under the rubric of service-learning, the curriculum is based on the overlap among health policy, the role of the nurse as consultant, and community-based care. After discussing the importance of health policy for graduate nursing education and reviewing the essentials of service-learning, we describe a three-semester graduate sequence in health policy service-learning. The focus is on the clinical and classroom components of both individual and group practica and their relationship to stages of nursing's political development. The article concludes with evaluation considerations and the implications of our work for nursing theory, research, practice, and education.
Culley, L., A critique of multiculturalism in health care: the challenge for education, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1996, 23(3), 564-70.
This paper is concerned with the way in which discussions of the status of people from minority ethnic groups and the delivery of care to such groups has been constructed, in the nursing literature in particular, within a culturalist framework which has many serious drawbacks. The paper reviews the argument for a multicultural approach to health care and also discusses some of the main implications of analysis for the education of health professionals. It suggests health workers and those responsible for the education of such need to reassess learning needs in the light of a critique of the analysis based on cultural pluralism and ethnicity. This paper suggests ways in which the nursing curriculum must take into account the limitations of a culturalist approach and the interplay of racism and other structures of inequality and their influence on health and on service delivery.
Dillon, D. L., & Sternas, K., Designing a successful health fair to promote individual, family, community health, Journal of Community Health Nursing, 1997, 14(1), 1-14.
A health fair is a community health strategy used to meet community members' needs for health promotion, education, and prevention. In this article we focus on the importance of partnerships in designing a fair; essential components; and steps in planning, implementing, evaluating a health fair. The Healthy People 2000 framework can guide the development of objectives and content for a health fair. We present a list of topics for exhibits and a Health Fair Evaluation Questionnaire used to measure outcomes of a health fair on health beliefs and practices. Implications for nursing practice, education, and research include increasing nurses' awareness of problems, health beliefs, and practices; networking opportunities provide knowledge of new resources; service-learning experiences for students; and opportunities for research on how health fairs meet care needs and promote changes in health knowledge, beliefs, and practices.
Downes, EA, Murray, JP, & Brownsberger, SL. The use of service-learning in drought response by universities in Ethiopia, Nursing Outlook, Sept/Oct 2007, 55(5), 224-231.
This article describes a successful Service-Learning experience and its outcomes that affected over 10 million Ethiopians. The 2006 World Health Report calls for an appropriately prepared health workforce. Universities in Ethiopia are rising to this challenge with the integration of strategies that support the education of interdisciplinary Health Teams for community deployment. Teams of Public Health Nurses, Health Officers, Environmental Health Sanitarians, and Medical Laboratory Technicians are prepared to address the health needs of the communities served. The introduction of Service-Learning as a teaching-learning strategy into the university health science curriculum in Ethiopia has demonstrated important outcomes. The drought response Service-Learning program is a successful model worthy of consideration for other universities.
Drevdahl, D., Dorcy, K.S., & Grevstad, L., Integrating principles of community- centered practice in a community health nursing practicum, Nurse Educator, 2001, 26(5), 234-239.
Using a service-learning approach, registered nurse baccalaureate students apply the concepts of community- and population-centered practice through participation in a 10-week clinical practicum. Through this project, students experience community health theories in action, understand the sociopolitical processes that shape health, and think more broadly about clients within their particular clinical practice, and populations beyond those settings.
Eshlemann, J., & Davidhizar, R., Community assessment: An RN-BSN partnership with community, ABNF Journal, 2000, 11(2), 28-31.
Conducting a community assessment can be a vital aspect of a community health course for a baccalaureate nursing student. This experience can enable the student to use the nursing process in a basic community assessment as well as provide community decision makers with significant data and analysis about community health related needs and potential solutions. This paper describes use of the Community-as-Partner model by Anderson and McFarlane to do a class project to assess a local community.
Eyler, J. Reflecting on service: Helping nursing students get the most from service-learning, Journal of Nursing Education, Oct 2002, 41(10), 453-456.
Faller, H.S., Dowell, M.A., & Jackson, M.A., Bridge to the future: nontraditional clinical settings, concepts and issues, Journal of Nursing Education, 1995, 34(8), 344-349.
Healthcare restructuring in the wake of healthcare reform places greater emphasis on primary healthcare. Clinical education in acute care settings and existing community health agencies are not compatible with teaching basic concepts, principles and skills fundamental to nursing. Problems of clients in acute care settings are too complex and clients in the community are often too dispersed for necessary faculty support and supervision of beginning nursing students. Nontraditional learning settings offer the baccalaureate student the opportunity to practice fundamental skills of care and address professional skills of negotiation, assertiveness, organization, collaboration and leadership. An overview of faculty designed clinical learning experiences in nontraditional sites such as McDonald's restaurants, inner city churches, YWCA's, the campus community and homes are presented. The legal, ethical and academic issues associated with nontraditional learning settings are discussed in relation to individual empowerment, decision making and evaluation. Implications for the future address the role of the students and faculty as they interact with the community in which they live and practice.
Fuller, SG, Alexander, JW, & Hardernan, SM. Sheriff's deputies and nursing students - Service-learning partnership, Nurse Educator, Jan/Feb 2006, 31(1), 31-35.
An innovative community health experience was provided through a collaborative partnership between the Richland County Sheriffs Department and the University of South Carolina College of Nursing. The authors discuss this unique experience.
Gassner, L. A., Wotton, K., Evaluation of a model of collaboration: Academic and clinician in the development and implementation of undergraduate teaching, Collegian, 1999, 6(3), 14-21, 28.
The difficulty nursing students experience in making the transition from the university to a clinical context is attributed to the gap between and practice, and education and service. Collaboration between and clinicians in the provision of undergraduate education is to be a strategy for overcoming these problems. A project team of four academics and six clinicians collaboratively developed and implemented an acute care topic, in the third year of a pre-nursing course at the School of Nursing, Flinders University. The literature did not provide examples of collaborative models to undergraduate teaching. The subsequent model, devised by the team, focused on technical, cultural and interpersonal aspects of collaborative teaching. The model was evaluated by illuminative methods. Participants in the project included academics (n = 4), clinicians (n = 6) and students (n = 104). Student questionnaires academic and clinician interviews were used to inform evaluation procedures. The qualitative data was coded and analyzed based upon definitions and characteristics of collaboration described by al (1995). Study findings demonstrated that the model was effective facilitating collaborative relationships necessary for the development and implementation of reality-based learning.
Gelmon, S.B., Holland, B.A, & Shinnamon, A.F., Health Professions Schools in Service to the Nation: Final Evaluation Report, San Francisco, CA: Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, 1998.
The Health Professions Schools in Service to the Nation Program was a national demonstration program of service-learning in health professions education. In April 1995, twenty health professions schools were awarded three-year grants to integrate service-learning into their core curricula. An external evaluation of the program was conducted by a team at Portland State University. This 93-page report describes the overall scope and purpose of the evaluation, the methods used, and findings across the grantees from the two year evaluation. Readers should find the report useful in the following ways: as a model evaluation methodology for assessing the impact of service-learning and community-campus partnerships on multiple stakeholders; as a stimulus for discussion about the design and impact of service-learning and community-campus partnerships in the health professions as a tool for reflecting on and continuously improving your own service-learning program; as a tool for developing a strategic plan for service-learning and community-campus partnerships. To order visit the CCPH web site, http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/pdf_files/PubList.pdf.
Gerberich, S.S., Care of homeless men in the community, Holistic Nursing Practice, 2000, 14(2), 21-28.
The author describes health care provided to homeless men by community health nursing students who conduct a service-learning project at an inner city mission. Service-learning is an educational method that combines the academic learning objectives of community nursing students and the health care educational and service needs of a vulnerable population of homeless men. Holistic and interdisciplinary nursing skills are practiced. Clients learn healthier life-style choices and to determine more appropriately the need and source for professional health care when problems are identified.
Gibboney, R. K., "Service-learning: lessons for and from nursing," In A.B. McBride, Ed., Nursing & philanthropy: An energizing metaphor for the 21st century, pp.43-64, Indianapolis: Center Nursing Press, Sigma Theta Tau International, 2000.
Although nursing education has long incorporated "clinicals," nursing faculty who are engaged in service-learning programs stress that these on-site educational experiences are not the same as community service in the service-learning model. This chapter reviews the principles of service-learning and examines the distinctions between service-learning and traditional clinical courses. It then examines the values and underlying framework for both service-learning and the nursing profession, to discover how each has the potential to enhance the other.
Green, D., Student perceptions of aging and disability as influenced by service- learning, Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 1998, 15(3), 39-55.
This study examined the effects of two community service-learning experiences on student perceptions of aging in a nursing home and on community-based individuals living with a disability. According to content analysis of student narratives, service-learning resulted in increased student awareness of issues pertinent to the students' companions in both settings. This heightened awareness was discussed in terms of the capacity for empathy. While both experiences were effective, there were differences in student responses to the two service-learning settings. This suggests a uniqueness in benefit from different settings for service- learning. Instructors should design community placements accordingly being cognizant of the desired educational goals.
Hales, A., Service-learning within the nursing curriculum, Nurse Educator, 1997, 22(2), 15-18.
Students at all levels are being encouraged to offer public service their communities. Yet, including service-learning courses in an education program is rare. The author outlines why and how one of nursing successfully incorporated a service-learning course into curriculum.
Hamner, JB, Wilder, B, Byrd, L. Lessons learned: Integrating a service learning community-based partnership into the curriculum, Nursing Outlook, 2007, 55(2), 106-110.
Auburn University School of Nursing (AUSON) has been in a partnership with the Auburn Housing Authority (AHA), a low-income public housing provider, for several years by providing a weekly nursing care clinic. AUSON was convinced expansion of the clinics would be beneficial to all. This article describes the process and lessons learned in expanding the scope and depth of the partnership and how this service learning experience was integrated throughout the nursing curriculum. Journaling by students revealed that interactions with a different culture over time changed their perceptions. Residents have been empowered to take control of their health. A community partnership takes persistence, perseverance, and consistency. This partnership has been beneficial to residents, students, and faculty. The university's land-grant mission of service and access is demonstrated through a partnership that offers opportunities for students and faculty to address the community's needs.
Hemstrom, M. M., Application as scholarship: a community client experience, Public Health Nursing, 1995, 12(5), 279-83.
A community health nursing experience with a complex aggregate developed for B.S.N. completion students at a private university. In collaboration with the neighborhood group, a survey based on notion of healthy neighborhoods and Cottrell's idea of community competence was developed. Community health nursing students drew a representative sample of neighborhood dwellers and interviewed them to assess their concerns. Data were summarized, inferences drawn, and problems amenable to nursing intervention identified. Students presented their findings to the neighborhood group, city providers, and various volunteer agencies. This experience provided service to the community client, public service for faculty, and an exceptional learning opportunity for students.
Herman, C., Wallace, C., Sassatelli, J., & Tutor, M., DARING to Reach the Heartland: A service-learning approach to Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing, Academic Exchange Quarterly, Spring 2000, 64-68.
Nebraska Methodist College Department of Nursing Psychiatric/Mental Health Section and Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Omaha, Inc. formed a partnership for service-learning. The partnership provides a collaborative, community-based experiential education for both associate degree and baccalaureate degree nursing students. This service-learning project has been initiated as part of the Partners in Caring and Community: Service-Learning in Nursing Education Program. This team was chosen as of nine teams selected nationwide to participate in the initiative. This paper presents the progress of the team initiative titled: "DARING" to Reach the Heartland, (Diversity, Advocacy, Respect, Innovation, Nursing Education, and Growth).
Holloway, AS. Service-learning in community college nursing education, Journal of Nursing Education, 2002, 41(10), 440-442.
Hunt, R. Service-learning: Curricular applications in nursing, Journal of Nursing Education, Oct 2002, 41(10), 463.
Hunt, R. Service-learning: An eye-opening experience that provokes emotion and challenges stereotypes, Journal of Nursing Education, June 2007, 46(6), 277-281.
Descriptive phenomenology was used to explore the lived experience of nursing students in service-learning clinical placement working with families who are homeless. Fourteen students from two different service-learning courses involving a family homeless shelter participated in the interviews. Six constituent descriptions were identified from thematic analysis: eye-opening to realize the effects of homelessness on families; feeling intense emotions that are sometimes hard to express; realizing families who are homeless are both different from and similar to families who have housing; challenging and transforming assumptions, perceptions, and stereotypes; the importance of reflection; and discovering new and different aspects of the nursing role. This research contributes to existing knowledge about the relationships between service-learning and emotional learning, cross-cultural learning, transformational learning, and developing caring as a way of being, as well as provides valuable information about improving service-learning activities.
Hunt, RJ, & Swiggum, P. Being in another world: Transcultural student experiences using service learning with families who are homeless, Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 2007, 18(2), 167-174.
Developing skills in cultural competence is a recognized theoretical strategy in schools of nursing. Nursing faculty know that students need to be sensitized to the concept of diversity; however, many are struggling with the best way to teach cultural competence. This article describes transcultural experiences from service learning clinical rotations at a family homeless shelter described by students as being in another world. Student narratives provide valuable information about structuring clinical learning activities to promote understanding of cultural differences and similarities. Clinical experiences using a traditional model versus those using service learning, the role of reflection, and teaching strategies promoting transcultural learning through service learning are explored.
Hurst, C.P., & Osban, L.B., Service-Learning on Wheels: The Nightingale Mobile Clinic, Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 2000, 21(4), 184-187.
Working side by side with faculty to deliver primary health care in remote rural areas, ADN students develop strong clinical skills and the ability to work as members of an interdisciplinary team.
Jacobson, S. F., MacRobert, M., et al., A faculty case management practice: integrating teaching, service, research, Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 1998, 19(5), 220-3.
Like many other schools, the faculty of the University of Oklahoma of Nursing (OUCN) recently revised its baccalaureate and master's curricula to prepare students better for the evolving changes in nursing profession and the health care job market. Our personal needed changes, reviews of the literature, and feedback from leaders and community employers supported the need for four changes. First, students needed more experiences in the community clients' homes, with the aged, the chronically ill, and the all age brackets. Second, students needed greater familiarity with Medicare, Medicaid, and managed care, and more active involvement wise use of limited resources. Third, they needed more experience interdisciplinary teams and with the management of care across levels of acuity. Fourth, there was a need for more consistent of health promotion and research content into student learning emerging trends in health care and nursing practice.
Juhn, G., Tang, J., Pressens, P., Grant, U., Johnson, N., & Murray, H., Community learning: the reach for health nursing program-middle collaboration, Journal of Nursing Education, 1998, 38(5), 215-21.
Nursing faculty and students have a vital role to play in promoting adolescent health at the community level. However, few nursing education programs have developed programs which provide nursing students with the skills and hands-on experiences they need to work with adolescents in community settings. A successful model for integrating community-based adolescent health promotion into nursing education is described in this article. Developed by nursing faculty from Medgar Evers College Department of Nursing, teachers and staff from a large middle school in Brooklyn, New York serving economically disadvantaged Black and Hispanic youth, and Education Development Center, Inc., the Reach for Health (RFH) Nursing Program-Middle School Collaboration has two mutually reinforcing components: (a) classroom-based health instruction taught by teachers with assistance from nursing students and faculty, and (b) community youth service in which middle school students spend approximately 3 hours per week providing assistance in health-related facilities under the guidance of nursing faculty and student nurse mentors. As part of an evaluation study, the authors conducted focus groups with nursing students involved in this program and administered an identical survey before and after intervention to assess potential benefits of participation. Compared to a control group of nursing students, those who participated in the RFH program reported increased skills and comfort working in school and community settings and with young adolescents, their teachers, and their parents. An example of other benefits was a greater understanding of the health and developmental needs of adolescents. At the same time they provided a service to the community, nursing students gained the skills and experience needed to be effective in community health promotion efforts.
Kataoka-Yahiro, M., & Cohen, J., A learning-service community partnership model for pediatric experiences, Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 1998, 19(6), 274-277.
Nurse educators are attempting to revise the nursing curriculum to pace with the changing focus of health care and prepare graduates for practice in a community-based, community-focused health care system. One important aspect of the change in emphasis in nursing education needs to address the primary and chronic health care needs of families, and aggregate populations.
Kerber, CS, Schlenker, E. Use of a breathalyzer in a local bar: A community education project, Journal of Nursing Education, Nov 2006, 45(11), 455-457.
In completing a faculty-assigned service-learning project, a group of nursing students sought to educate their peers and the public about the effects of alcohol consumption. Breathalyzer readings were obtained from 150 bar patrons and correlated with the number of drinks consumed and number of hours spent drinking. The results were used to educate bar patrons about the difference between how intoxicated they felt and their actual blood alcohol levels. The students also distributed information about substance abuse assistance and safe transportation home. This screening technique served as an application of secondary prevention principles for the nursing students. The project was considered innovative in that no similar study was found in the literature. Selected Healthy People 2010 goals were also addressed in this project.
Kniest, K. R., O'Leary, P., et. al., A partnership for community-based nursing experience: Head College, Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 1999, 14(2), 94-8.
In an effort to provide meaningful community-based nursing experiences for the students of William Rainey Harper College, a project was developed with the Community Economic Development Association of Cook County, Illinois to link second-year nursing students and clients in a Head Start program. The goals were designed to meet the needs of both the students and the Head Start clients. The students provided a portion of the service plan for the Head Start families, and at the same time they received a comprehensive community/family learning experience. The second year of the nursing program the students followed their assigned family utilizing a unique integration of pediatric and psychiatric nursing concepts. The article will outline the project development to completion of the first year of student involvement.
Kulewicz, S.J., Service-learning: Head Start and a baccalaureate nursing curriculum working together, Pediatric Nursing, 2001, 27(1), 37-43.
Service-learning experiences for pediatric nursing students in Head Start programs allow students to achieve the objectives of the pediatric nursing curriculum, model the values of the profession, meet the goals of a community agency, and contribute to the good of society. Students conduct screening tests, present health promotion or safety education projects, develop pediatric-related handouts for the parents and staff, perform assessments of growth and development, identify and research pediatric health issues, and learn the fine art of communicating with preschool children. Head Start schools as clinical sites provide students with ample opportunities to blend nursing theory with application while introducing them to another area of the population. Students, faculty, and Head Start staff agree that this collaboration accomplishes the goals of both organizations.
Kushto-Reese, K, Maguire, MC, Silbert-Flagg, J, Immelt, S, Shaefer, SJM. Developing community partnerships in nursing education for children's health, Nursing Outlook, 2007, 55(2), 85-94.
Community partnerships are central to educating nurses and providing much-needed services to underserved children in Baltimore City. Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing (JHUSON) collaborates with Head Start programs and a local elementary school for faculty practice and child-health clinical Service Learning experiences. At local Head Start programs, undergraduate nursing students annually screen > 1000 children for height, weight, hearing, vision, and blood pressure. Results are sent to parents with referral information if indicated. In addition, graduate and baccalaureate nursing students implement skills and knowledge learned in the classroom in a nurse-run clinic in a local elementary school, a faculty practice site. The Service Learning community partnerships benefit nursing students because they can apply principles of growth and development while providing important health screening to children in underserved populations. All students gain from practicing in the community and applying their classroom instruction to the care of children.
Laforet-Fliesser, Y., Ward-Griffin, C., Bennon, C., Self-efficacy of preceptors in the community: a partnership between service and education, Nurse Education Today, 1999, 19(1), 41-52.
Developing partnerships between service and education is one strategy to enhance student learning. A pre-test-post-test design was used to compare changes in perceptions of self-efficacy expectations in the supervision of a team of four senior nursing students. A convenience sample of eight community practitioners completed the Community Advisor Self-Efficacy (CASE) questionnaire prior to and following a 13 week community health practicum. Following the community practicum, the preceptors were also invited to attend a focus group to discuss their experience. No significant differences were found between the pre- and post-self-efficacy scores. Community practitioners felt reasonably confident in assuming the preceptor role. They felt most efficacious in encouraging students to use agency personnel and in providing student feedback, but somewhat less confident in areas such as selecting learning experiences congruent with course objectives, and trusting the students' readiness to work with communities. All strategies to assist the preceptors in assuming their role were considered helpful. Evidence of the preceptors and faculty advisors working in partnerships with the students was not clearly evident. Findings are being used to refine strategies for preparing and supporting agency personnel for their role in working with students.
Lehna,C. & Byrne, A., An example of a successful collaboration effort between a nurse educator and a hospice clinical nurse specialist/director, Journal of Professional Nursing, 1995, 11(3), 175-182.
Collaboration between nursing education and nursing service recognizes the expertise of both the educator and the clinician. Nurses share information, ideas, and skills to promote quality nursing care, improve nursing practice, and reduce costs. One example of an effective nursing collaboration involved a child-rearing nurse educator and a children's hospice clinical nurse specialist/director. The methods of promoting collaboration between the educator and clinician will be examined. The advantages and disadvantages of collaboration between the two nursing divisions will be explored. Lastly, mutual nursing practice benefits for the two clinicians are explained.
Leonard, L. G., Primary Health Care and partnerships: collaboration of a community health department, and university nursing program, Journal of Nursing Education, 1998, 37(3), 144-148.
Health care reform proposals emphasize health care that is practical, scientifically sound, coordinated, accessible, delivered, and affordable. One route to achievement of improved outcomes within these parameters is the formation of partnerships. Partnerships adopting the philosophy and five principles of Primary Care (PHC) focus on health promotion and prevention of illness and disability, maximum community participation, accessibility to health services, interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration, use of appropriate technologies such as resources and strategies. A community service agency serving a multicultural population partnership with a health department and a university undergraduate nursing program. The result was a preschool health fair and there benefits for each partner-benefits which could not have been without the collaboration. The health fair partnership planning, implementation, and evaluation process was guided by a framework the philosophy and five principles of PHC. The educational process described can be applied to other learning experiences to help students understand and apply the concepts of PHC, develop nursing competencies, and form collaborative relationships with the community and health agencies. Community health care dilemmas and education challenges can be successfully addressed when various disciplines and sectors form effective partnerships.
Logsdon, M. C. & Ford, D., Service-learning for graduate students, Nurse Educator, 1998, 23(2), 34-37.
Although service-learning is gaining momentum in academic settings the country, it has not been described as a feature of graduate education. This project incorporated a ten-hour service requirement into a theories of nurse caring as part of a course for graduate nursing students, Theories and Concepts of Nursing. The authors describe service-learning experience, as well as the extensive class process and written synthesis with caring theory and the University mission after completion of the service.
Lough, M. A., An academic-community partnership: a model of service and education, Journal of Community Health Nursing, 1999, 16(3), 137-49.
To meet the challenge of preparing nurses for delivery of health care that is directed toward health promotion and focused on populations at the community level, it is critical that academicians develop new methods to educate their students. In this article, I describe an innovative clinical practice model in which an academic-community partnership was created between a college of nursing and a neighborhood grade school and parish. The purpose of the partnership is to provide needed health services to clients, at the same time giving students the opportunity to practice population-focused care in the community. The benefits of the partnership are numerous, including improved client health status, increased access to health promotion services, and enhanced student learning.
Lutz J., Herrick C.A., & Lehman B.B., Community partnership. A school of nursing creates nursing centers for older adults, Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 2001, 22(1), 26-29.
A southeastern university school of nursing responded to a request by a local housing authority to provide nursing care and health promotion to the residents of three high-rise complexes for independent living for seniors. This service-learning partnership offers differing educational benefits to graduate and undergraduate nursing students while helping residents remain as well as possible.
Meade, C.D. & Calvo, A., Developing community-academic partnerships to enhance breast health among rural and Hispanic migrant and seasonal farm worker women, Oncology-Nursing-Forum, 2001, 28(10), 1577-84.
To examine effective strategies for building community-academic partnerships for the promotion of breast cancer education and outreach among rural and Hispanic migrant and seasonal farm worker women, mostly from Mexican descent. Data Sources: Published research and education articles and books, community-education models, personal experiences, and community key informant feedback. Data Synthesis: Effective community partnerships for enhanced education and outreach include a framework based on a network of partners with common goals, communication processes based on trust, and bilingual/bicultural and culturally competent staff. Conclusions: A sustainable community partnership can be achieved through systematic but flexible approaches to community planning. Involvement of community members in the development and implementation of education and screening activities helps ensure that community needs are met. Relationships based on mutual respect are key. Implications for Nursing Practice: Nurses can act as catalysts through community capacity building to create community-academic partnerships to reach medically underserved populations with cancer screening, outreach, and education through the delivery of strategies that are based on common goals.
Mellon, S.& Nelson, P., Leadership experiences in the community for nursing students: Redesigning education for the 21st century, Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 1998, 19(3), 120-124.
This article focuses on integrating traditional community health nursing with leadership skills in a streamlined model to build 21st century competencies.
Miller, M.P. & Swanson, E., Service-learning and community health nursing: A natural fit,Nursing Education Perspectives, 2002, 23, 30-33.
Miller, M.P., Gillespie, J., Billian, A., & Davel, S., Prevention of smoking behaviors in middle school students: Student nurse interventions, Public Health Nursing, 2001, 18(2), 77-81.
This article examines the use of the Tar Wars curriculum with the public health problem of preteen smoking and outlines interventions with a middle school population by community health student nurses from a state university. Smoking is the single most preventable cause of death and disability. Three million people die worldwide each year as a result of smoking. Cigarette smoking has now been labeled a pediatric disease. Estimates are that 3,000 children will begin a lifelong addiction to cigarettes every day. They will face a life of poor quality based on the medical consequences of smoking cigarettes. Mortality from tobacco use is annually greater than that from drug abuse, AIDS, suicide, homicide, and motor vehicle accidents combined. Preteen and teenage smoking is now a public health problem, therefore implications for service-learning, nursing advocacy, and interventions with this health problem are discussed.
Nardi, D., Schlotman, E., et. al., Breaking ground: combining community service, critical thinking, writing in a mental health clinical course, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 1997, 11(2): 88-95.
This article describes the experience of a team of nursing faculty over the course of 2 years, redesigned the delivery of a nursing clinical course to reflect the changing face of mental health care near the turn of this century. Case studies of student learning experiences show the value of nontraditional clinical settings such homeless shelters to the professional growth and training of students. Recommendations offer practical advice for combining nontraditional community-based clinical experiences with critical exercises as key components of the mental health clinical course.
Narsavage, GL, Lindell, D, Chen, YJ, Savrin, C, & Duffy, E. A community engagement initiative: Service-learning in graduate nursing education, Journal of Nursing Education, Oct 2002, 41(10), 457-461.
Nativio, D.G., Advanced practice. Service-learning, the scholarship of service, Nursing-Outlook, 2001, 49(4): 164-5.
Nehls, N., Owen.B., Tipple, S., & Vandermause, R., Lessons learned from developing, implementing, and evaluating a model of community-driven nursing, Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 2001, 22 (6). 304-307.
The Helene Fuld Health Trust, HSBC Bank USA,Trustee has made generous contributions to the development of community-based nursing education. As a recipient of funds, faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Nursing developed, implemented, and evaluated a pilot curriculum for undergraduate nursing students. The first phase of the project changed the landscape of community-based nursing education through faculty development. Unlike traditional approaches to faculty development, a resident expert model of faculty development based on dialogue was used. The second phase changed the landscape of teaching and learning community-based care through curricular and instructional revisions. Noteworthy changes were the creation of a curriculum responsive to both individual student and community needs, and recruitment of a cadre of teachers to enhance the cost-effectiveness of clinical education. The third phase changed the landscape of community-based nursing education through evaluation research. Several strategies were used to assess the project's usefulness, including interpretive phenomenological study of interview data and review of conventional outcome measures. Each phase of the project contributed to a new vision of community-based nursing education, a vision in which nursing as service is taught and learned.
Nokes, KM, Nickitas, DM, Keida, R, Neville, S. Does service-learning increase cultural competency, critical thinking, and civic engagement? Journal of Nursing Education, Feb 2005, 44(2), 65-70.
To prepare for community engagement and partnerships with diverse communities, nursing students must understand the principles of service-learning, as well as the essential skills needed to work within a democracy. The purposes of these two pilot tests were to develop a 15-hour service-learning intervention; refine the 15-hour service-learning intervention; and explore whether participation in the intervention made a difference in the critical thinking, cultural competence, and civic engagement of nursing student participants. Although the sample was small (n = 14), results of paired t tests found that, after the intervention, critical thinking scores measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory were significantly lower (t = -2.23, p =.04), particularly on the self-confidence subscale (t = 2.29, p =.039); cultural competence scores measured by the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals were significantly lower (t = 4.83, p =.000); and civic engagement scores significantly increased (t = -3.54, p = .004).
Norbeck, J.S., Connolly, C., & Koerner, J., Eds., Caring and community: Concepts and models for service-learning in nursing, Washington DC: American Association of Higher Education, 1998. Published in cooperation with Community-Campus Partnerships for Health.
This 225-page book goes beyond a simple "how-to" to provide a rigorous intellectual discussion of service-learning in nursing education. Chapters discuss the implementation of service-learning in the nursing discipline, and what nursing can contribute to the pedagogy of service-learning. It contains theoretical and pedagogical essays by disciplinary scholars, an annotated bibliography and sample syllabi and course assignments. To order visit the CCPH website.
Peterson, S.J. & Schaffer, M.J., Service-learning: A strategy to develop group collaboration and research skills, Journal of Nursing Education, 1999, 38(5), 208-216.
Many colleges and universities currently are implementing service-learning as an educational strategy into their curricula. The goal of service-learning is a dynamic partnership between educational institutions and communities resulting in the mutual benefits of service and learning. Although service-learning has significance for teaching nursing students, educators must differentiate service-learning from clinical practicum. This article provides a definition of service-learning, identifies the relevance of service-learning for nursing education, presents an example of service-learning integrated into a nursing course, and evaluates service-learning as a methodology for teaching group collaboration and research skills. Student surveys, a focus group, and community partner evaluations indicated service-learning contributed to the development of group collaboration and research skills among baccalaureate nursing students. To enhance faculty, student, and community partner satisfaction with service-learning, instructors should clearly define service-learning experiences for a specific setting and offer structured guidance that does not interfere with student decision-making.
Peterson S.J., & Schaffer, M.A., Service-learning: isn't that what nursing education has always been? Journal of Nursing Education, 2001, 40(2):51-52.
Poirrier, G., Service-Learning: Curricular Applications in Nursing, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2001.
Service-Learning: Curricular Applications in Nursing, emphasizes the importance of service-learning to nursing education, while providing an introduction to the principles and concepts of service-learning and presenting effective service-learning activities currently employed in nursing curricula.
Rash, EM. A service learning research methods course, Journal of Nursing Education, Oct 2005, 44(10), 477-478.
Incorporation of service learning into an undergraduate nursing research course has the potential to invigorate baccalaureate nursing students' interest in research through real-world connections. In this article, I describe the development and implementation of an undergraduate nursing research course that incorporated service learning. The course experience proved to be enlightening for both the students and instructor, and propelled students to continue their research beyond the course requirements.
Redman, RW & Clark, L. Service-learning as a model for integrating social justice in the nursing curriculum, Journal of Nursing Education, 2002, 41(10), 446-449.
Reising, DL. Service-learning in undergraduate nursing curricula, Journal of Nursing Education, 45(2), Feb 2006, 95.
Reising, DL, Allen, PN, & Hall, SG. Student and community outcomes in service-learning: Part 1 - Student perceptions, Journal of Nursing Education, Dec 2006, 45(12), 512-518.
Service-learning has a long and distinguished history of providing valuable experiences to students across all academic levels. Professional disciplines are well situated to provide students with opportunities related to service-learning while also providing needed health care services to communities. This article describes a service-learning initiative implemented in a bachelor of science in nursing program. Part 1 details students' perceptions of outcomes realized from the program, and Part 2 describes community outcomes. The purposes of the program were to enhance students' skills in history-taking, blood pressure and heart rate assessment skills, and beginning counseling skills, as well as provide the university community with blood pressure screening and counseling in a convenient and accessible location. Data on students' perceptions were collected for each semester of the program and for 1 year after students' participation in the program. Students perceived gains in blood pressure and heart rate skill performance, beginning counseling skills, their understanding of tailored client action plans, and their professional commitment to the health of the community.
Riner, M.E. & Becklenberg, A., Partnering with a sister city organization for an international service-learning experience, Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 2001, 12(3): 234-240
A partnership was established between Indiana University School of Nursing in Indianapolis and the Bloomington, Indiana-Posoltega, Nicaragua Sister City International organization to provide an international service-learning course in nursing. The course evolved over 4 years from an independent study for a single student to an elective course taken by 10 students. Student-learning activities included the following: developing relationships with community residents, providing prenatal classes, supporting nursing scholarships, and participating as interdisciplinary, multicultural team members. Partnering with our local Sister City International organization provided a rich opportunity for nursing students to learn about and participate with Nicaraguan and international health care workers in meeting population health needs in stable and refugee environments.
Rodgers, M.W., Service-Learning Resource Allocation, Nurse-Educator, 2001, 26(5), 244-7.
Service-learning has the potential to increase student learning, assist communities, and provide faculty members with one focus area that brings teaching, service, scholarship, and practice together. As nursing programs revise curricula to include community based service-learning opportunities, the impact of these projects on material and human resources must be assessed. Planning can increase the probability of adequate resources, faculty productivity, and student learning. When planning service-learning activities, addressing the following questions will assist in evaluating projects: Is there a match between academic mission and community needs? What commitment will be made to the community? Will the project promote faculty productivity? Will it offer students superior learning opportunities? What resources will the project require?
Schaffer, M.A.; Mather, S, & Gustafson, V., Service learning: A strategy for conducting a health needs assessment of the homeless, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2000, 11(4), 385-399.
An agency providing health care services for homeless persons and a nursing department at a liberal arts college established a service-learning partnership to complete a health needs assessment of homeless persons. Under the guidance of agency staff and a nursing faculty member, seven nursing students surveyed shelter residents (n=101) in four urban areas and conducted a focus group to identify residents' perceptions of health, health care needs, and health care service delivery. The service-learning partnership expanded the agency's services by providing research consultation and data collection that resulted in recommendations to improve health care services for the homeless. The agency contributed to the education of health professionals by providing students with a meaningful community service experience.
Scheideberg, D., Service-learning within a midwifery curriculum, Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 1999, 44(2): 151-153.
Service-learning entwines community work/volunteerism with academic instruction, taking the student outside the traditional realm and placing the experience into community-based projects. Projects draw on academic principles, public/community health, arts, and hands on delivery, enticing the student to delve deeper into the lives of the women and families they will be serving. Service-learning directs the student to fully embrace the midwifery philosophy as articulated by the American College of Nurse-Midwives. The experiences of the nurse-midwifery students at the University of Missouri-Columbia are described to show the depth and variety of service-learning as it affects the scope of well-woman care.
Schneiderman, J. U., Jordan-Marsh, M. & Bates-Jensen, B., Senior centers. Shifting student paradigms, Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 1998, 24(10): 24-30.
The Pew Commission has urged all health profession students to embrace new competencies by the year 2005 including care for the community's health. Service-learning at senior centers offers nursing students opportunities for seeing new roles for nurses. Senior citizens were universally positive regarding contact with students; however, students wished for more time in the acute care setting.
Seifer, SD., ed., Partners in Caring and Community: A Team Approach to Service-Learning in Nursing Education, San Francisco, CA: Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, 2001.
This publication is based on the first eighteen months of the Partners in Caring and Community: Service-Learning in Nursing Education Program, a national demonstration program funded by the Helene Fuld Health Trust HSBC, Trustee. Nine service-learning partnerships in nursing education report on their experiences, outcomes and lessons learned. Each partnership involves a team of a nursing faculty member, a nursing student and a community agency partner. The perspectives of the team as a whole, as well as individual team members are provided. To order visit the CCPH website.
Seifer, SD & Vaughn, RL. Partners in caring and community: Service-learning in nursing education, Journal of Nursing Education, 2002, 41(10), 437-439.
Sensenig, Julia A. Learning through teaching: Empowering students and culturally diverse patients at a community-based nursing care center, Journal of Nursing Education, Aug 2007, 46(8), 373-379.
This article addresses the effect of a nursing care center on student learning. Associate degree nursing students spend clinical days at a nursing care center that was created in collaboration with an inner-city clinic serving individuals who are uninsured and underinsured. The nursing students learn cultural sensitivity, teaching strategies, and interdisciplinary skills. The service-learning experience benefits the nursing students, the nursing department of the college, the patients who visit the nursing care center, the clinic, and the community. This article describes the development of the nursing care center, examples of teaching-learning opportunities, and evidence of student learning. This successful collaboration between a community college and an inner-city clinic can be replicated by other nursing programs.
Shiber, S., Expanding urban learning experiences for non-traditional students, Public Health Nursing, 1999, 16(3), 228-32.
Educating nurses in the motivation and ability to provide appropriate and quality health care to urban inner-city residents with complex and multiple health problems has been a continuing challenge to academic institutions. Recruiting appropriate students and providing meaningful learning experiences is the first of many challenges. Understanding and addressing the many barriers to accessing health services is an important learning outcome. Successful providers with underserved populations have been found to have a strong sense of service to humanity and pride in making a difference and have thrived on the challenges of creatively using limited resources to deal with their patients' complex needs. Establishing a Returned Peace Corps Fellows program and a community health nursing track within the undergraduate program in nursing has provided some successes and additional answers. While studying for a professional degree, the Fellows are placed in a service position to integrate their Peace Corps experiences into new professional learning as it is taking place and to earn a stipend to assist with the cost of their education. This has led to the development of a community health nursing track in the undergraduate program: a combination of required-for credit courses, credit-earning enrichment and independent study experiences, and stipend-earning clinical experiences outside the curriculum.
Shinnamon, A., Gelmon, S.B., & Holland, B.A., Methods and strategies for assessing service-learning in the health professions, San Francisco, CA: Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, 1999.
This 72-page workbook presents the strategies and methods that comprise an evaluation model for assessing the impact of service-learning in health professions education. It is intended to help readers understand the rationale and foundation for the various assessment approaches and provides an assessment tool at the end of the workbook that may be utilized in your own program/organization. To order visit the CCPH website.
Simoni, P. S. & McKinney, J.A., Evaluation of service learning in a school of nursing: primary care community setting, Journal of Nursing Education, 1998, 37(3), 122-128.
The evolving system of health care delivery, emphasizing prevention and early intervention, presents challenges to schools that educate care professionals. Nursing faculty in a rural mid-Atlantic state initiated a service-learning project, relating education and primary care in the surrounding community. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the project outcomes. The 45 students involved in the project responded to Beliefs Related to Nursing Competencies, a quantitative measure (Cronbach's alpha = based on the Pew Health Commission's "Competencies Needed by for 2005") and to a second measure, Qualitative Questions for Service-Learning. Results of quantitative analysis revealed acceptance of the competencies as nursing responsibilities. Analysis revealed that students were involved in increasing access to community-based primary care; curricula relating existing learning problems and rewarding critical thinking was evident; and students were receiving preparation for a health care environment which will rely on their ability to respond to its changing needs.
Sternas, K. A., O'Hare, P., Lehman, K., & Milligan, R., Nursing and medical student teaming for service-learning in with the community: an emerging holistic model for education and practice, Holistic Nursing Practice, 1999, 13(2), 66-77.
To meet the health needs of communities today, health professionals need to be trained in working with persons from various cultural backgrounds, practicing disease prevention and health promotion in community-based settings, and working in teams with other professionals. The article focuses on interdisciplinary teaming for education and practice. In this model, medical and nursing students partner with communities to plan and deliver health promotion education programs and activities. Four service-learning projects providing collaborative teaming opportunities as part of the Health Professions Schools in Service to the Nation Program are described. Interdisciplinary service-learning has benefits for the community, students, and faculty and will prepare nurses and physicians to have a positive impact on care through future interdisciplinary collaboration in community-based settings.
Walsh, LV. International service learning in midwifery and nursing education, Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health, 2006, 48(6), Nov/Dec 2006, 449-454.
The health of women and childbearing families is a global concern that must be addressed if we are to be successful in ensuring healthy families. Numerous strategies have been suggested to increase appreciation for the global factors that influence maternal and child health and the overall health status of a community. Inclusion of cultural content in courses offered in educational programs and provision of clinical learning experiences in diverse communities have commonly been used in midwifery and nursing education. This article reviews the concept of service learning and its application in a course that provides an opportunity for students to participate in an international immersion program. Evaluation of the course found that participants increased their knowledge and skills in providing reproductive health care, developed appreciation for the knowledge and skills of traditional birth attendants, and expanded their worldview of women and families in communities.
Ward, S, Blair, M, Henton, F, Jackson, H, Landolt, T, Mattson, K. Service-learning across an accelerated curriculum, Journal of Nursing Education, Sept 2007, 46(9), 427-430.
In support of the community-based education philosophy, nursing faculty at a small health careers college in the midwestern United States incorporated a service-learning experience involving Sudanese refugee families and Latino community members into its accelerated community-based nursing program (ACE) curriculum. The purpose of the service-learning experience is to allow students the opportunity develop relationships through which they may gain an understanding of unique needs within a community. This article describes the development and benefits of the service-learning experience across the ACE curriculum. Through reflection, students broaden and deepen their understanding about the health of individuals in the community and acquire a more sophisticated understanding of risk factors associated with the social determinants of health. ACE program faculty believe that having students involved in a continuous service-learning experience spanning the 15-month program allows students to develop strong relationships within the community and gain a greater understanding of the unique needs within that community. Overall, the experience has been successful and challenging.
Warren, BJ, Donaldson, & Whaley, M. Service learning: An adjunct to therapeutic communication and critical thinking skills for baccalaureate nursing students, Journal of Nursing Education, Mar 2005, 44(3), 147.
White, J. L., Wellness Wednesdays: health promotion and service-learning on campus... targeted to university faculty and staff, Journal of Nursing Education, 1999, 38(2), 69-71.
The Wellness Wednesdays program has shown itself to be effective for providing community-based service-learning opportunities convenient for participants, students, and faculty. As the program continues to grow, it will provide opportunities for collaboration with other health-related departments on campus. It will provide a setting for faculty and student research related to management, health promotion, disease prevention, and behavior motivation.
White, S. G., Festa, L.M., et. al., Community service-learning in an undergraduate psychiatric mental nursing course, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 1999, 13(5), 261-8.
This article reports the outcomes of a descriptive study of service-learning undertaken in a Psychiatric and Mental Health Course at Virginia Commonwealth University. Following a review of service-learning literature, study questions are presented; intervention is presented, as are characteristics of learners and where SL was conducted. Gains for all stakeholders and lessons are reported.
White, S. G. & Henry J.K., Incorporation of service-learning into a baccalaureate nursing curriculum, Nursing Outlook, 1999, 47(6), 257-61.
The Linkages project established a service-learning educational experience in a school of nursing.
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